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Phone Answering Service in Alabama

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    • 1 to 3 days

      Birmingham

      24/7 Voicemail Reception

      9 – 5 Live Answering

      24/7 Custom Solutions

      Starts at $20/month

  • BIRMINGHAM

  • ABBEVILLE

  • ABERNANT

  • ADAMSVILLE

  • ADDISON

  • ADGER

  • AKRON

  • ALABASTER

  • ALBERTA

  • ALBERTVILLE

  • ALEXANDER CITY

  • ALEXANDRIA

  • ALICEVILLE

  • ALLGOOD

  • ALPINE

  • ALTON

  • ALTOONA

  • ANDALUSIA

  • ANDERSON

  • ANNEMANIE

  • ANNISTON

  • ARAB

  • ARDMORE

  • ARITON

  • ARLEY

  • ARLINGTON

  • ASHFORD

  • ASHLAND

  • ASHVILLE

  • ATHENS

  • ATMORE

  • ATTALLA

  • AUBURN

  • AUBURN UNIVERSITY

  • AUTAUGAVILLE

  • AXIS

  • BAILEYTON

  • BANKS

  • BANKSTON

  • BAY MINETTE

  • BAYOU LA BATRE

  • BEAR CREEK

  • BEATRICE

  • BEAVERTON

  • BELK

  • BELLAMY

  • BELLE MINA

  • BELLWOOD

  • BERRY

  • BESSEMER

  • BILLINGSLEY

  • BLACK

  • BLOUNTSVILLE

  • BOAZ

  • BOLIGEE

  • BON AIR

  • BON SECOUR

  • BOOTH

  • BOYKIN

  • BRANTLEY

  • BREMEN

  • BRENT

  • BREWTON

  • BRIDGEPORT

  • BRIERFIELD

  • BRILLIANT

  • BROOKLYN

  • BROOKSIDE

  • BROOKWOOD

  • BROWNSBORO

  • BRUNDIDGE

  • BRYANT

  • BUCKS

  • BUHL

  • BURNWELL

  • BUTLER

  • BYNUM

  • CALERA

  • CALVERT

  • CAMDEN

  • CAMP HILL

  • CAMPBELL

  • CAPSHAW

  • CARBON HILL

  • CARDIFF

  • CARLTON

  • CARROLLTON

  • CASTLEBERRY

  • CATHERINE

  • CECIL

  • CEDAR BLUFF

  • CENTRE

  • CENTREVILLE

  • CHANCELLOR

  • CHAPMAN

  • CHATOM

  • CHELSEA

  • CHEROKEE

  • CHILDERSBURG

  • CHOCCOLOCCO

  • CHUNCHULA

  • CITRONELLE

  • CLANTON

  • CLAY

  • CLAYTON

  • CLEVELAND

  • CLINTON

  • CLIO

  • CLOPTON

  • CLOVERDALE

  • COALING

  • CODEN

  • COFFEE SPRINGS

  • COFFEEVILLE

  • COKER

  • COLLINSVILLE

  • COLUMBIA

  • COLUMBIANA

  • COOK SPRINGS

  • COOSADA

  • CORDOVA

  • COTTONDALE

  • COTTONTON

  • COTTONWOOD

  • COURTLAND

  • COWARTS

  • COY

  • CRAGFORD

  • CRANE HILL

  • CREOLA

  • CROPWELL

  • CROSSVILLE

  • CUBA

  • CULLMAN

  • CUSSETA

  • DADEVILLE

  • DALEVILLE

  • DANVILLE

  • DAPHNE

  • DAUPHIN ISLAND

  • DAVISTON

  • DAWSON

  • DE ARMANVILLE

  • DEATSVILLE

  • DECATUR

  • DEER PARK

  • DELMAR

  • DELTA

  • DEMOPOLIS

  • DETROIT

  • DICKINSON

  • DIXONS MILLS

  • DOCENA

  • DOLOMITE

  • DORA

  • DOTHAN

  • DOUBLE SPRINGS

  • DOUGLAS

  • DOZIER

  • DUNCANVILLE

  • DUTTON

  • EAST TALLASSEE

  • EASTABOGA

  • ECHOLA

  • ECLECTIC

  • EDWARDSVILLE

  • EIGHT MILE

  • ELBA

  • ELBERTA

  • ELDRIDGE

  • ELKMONT

  • ELMORE

  • ELROD

  • EMELLE

  • EMPIRE

  • ENTERPRISE

  • EPES

  • EQUALITY

  • ESTILLFORK

  • ETHELSVILLE

  • EUFAULA

  • EUTAW

  • EVA

  • EVERGREEN

  • EXCEL

  • FACKLER

  • FAIRFIELD

  • FAIRHOPE

  • FALKVILLE

  • FAUNSDALE

  • FAYETTE

  • FITZPATRICK

  • FIVE POINTS

  • FLAT ROCK

  • FLOMATON

  • FLORALA

  • FLORENCE

  • FOLEY

  • FOREST HOME

  • FORKLAND

  • FORT DAVIS

  • FORT DEPOSIT

  • FORT MITCHELL

  • FORT PAYNE

  • FORT RUCKER

  • FOSTERS

  • FRANKLIN

  • FRANKVILLE

  • FRISCO CITY

  • FRUITDALE

  • FRUITHURST

  • FULTON

  • FULTONDALE

  • FURMAN

  • FYFFE

  • GADSDEN

  • GAINESTOWN

  • GAINESVILLE

  • GALLANT

  • GALLION

  • GANTT

  • GARDEN CITY

  • GARDENDALE

  • GAYLESVILLE

  • GENEVA

  • GEORGIANA

  • GERALDINE

  • GILBERTOWN

  • GLEN ALLEN

  • GLENWOOD

  • GOODSPRINGS

  • GOODWATER

  • GOODWAY

  • GORDO

  • GORDON

  • GOSHEN

  • GRADY

  • GRAHAM

  • GRAND BAY

  • GRANT

  • GRAYSVILLE

  • GREEN POND

  • GREENSBORO

  • GREENVILLE

  • GROVE HILL

  • GROVEOAK

  • GUIN

  • GULF SHORES

  • GUNTERSVILLE

  • GURLEY

  • HACKLEBURG

  • HALEYVILLE

  • HAMILTON

  • HANCEVILLE

  • HARDAWAY

  • HARPERSVILLE

  • HARTFORD

  • HARTSELLE

  • HARVEST

  • HATCHECHUBBEE

  • HAYDEN

  • HAYNEVILLE

  • HAZEL GREEN

  • HEADLAND

  • HEFLIN

  • HELENA

  • HENAGAR

  • HIGDON

  • HIGHLAND HOME

  • HILLSBORO

  • HODGES

  • HOLLINS

  • HOLLY POND

  • HOLLYTREE

  • HOLLYWOOD

  • HOLY TRINITY

  • HONORAVILLE

  • HOPE HULL

  • HORTON

  • HOUSTON

  • HUNTSVILLE

  • HURTSBORO

  • HUXFORD

  • IDER

  • IRVINGTON

  • JACHIN

  • JACK

  • JACKSON

  • JACKSONS GAP

  • JACKSONVILLE

  • JASPER

  • JEFFERSON

  • JEMISON

  • JONES

  • JOPPA

  • KANSAS

  • KELLERMAN

  • KELLYTON

  • KENNEDY

  • KENT

  • KILLEN

  • KIMBERLY

  • KINSTON

  • KNOXVILLE

  • LACEYS SPRING

  • LAFAYETTE

  • LANETT

  • LANGSTON

  • LAPINE

  • LAWLEY

  • LEEDS

  • LEESBURG

  • LEIGHTON

  • LENOX

  • LEROY

  • LESTER

  • LETOHATCHEE

  • LEXINGTON

  • LILLIAN

  • LINCOLN

  • LINDEN

  • LINEVILLE

  • LISMAN

  • LITTLE RIVER

  • LIVINGSTON

  • LOACHAPOKA

  • LOCKHART

  • LOCUST FORK

  • LOGAN

  • LOUISVILLE

  • LOWER PEACH TREE

  • LOWNDESBORO

  • LOXLEY

  • LUVERNE

  • LYNN

  • MADISON

  • MAGNOLIA

  • MAGNOLIA SPRINGS

  • MALCOLM

  • MALVERN

  • MAPLESVILLE

  • MARBURY

  • MARGARET

  • MARION

  • MARION JUNCTION

  • MATHEWS

  • MAYLENE

  • MC CALLA

  • MC INTOSH

  • MC KENZIE

  • MC SHAN

  • MC WILLIAMS

  • MEGARGEL

  • MELVIN

  • MENTONE

  • MERIDIANVILLE

  • MEXIA

  • MIDLAND CITY

  • MIDWAY

  • MILLBROOK

  • MILLERVILLE

  • MILLPORT

  • MILLRY

  • MINTER

  • MOBILE

  • MONROEVILLE

  • MONTEVALLO

  • MONTGOMERY

  • MONTROSE

  • MOODY

  • MOORESVILLE

  • MORRIS

  • MORVIN

  • MOULTON

  • MOUNDVILLE

  • MOUNT HOPE

  • MOUNT MEIGS

  • MOUNT OLIVE

  • MOUNT VERNON

  • MULGA

  • MUNFORD

  • MUSCADINE

  • MUSCLE SHOALS

  • MYRTLEWOOD

  • NANAFALIA

  • NATURAL BRIDGE

  • NAUVOO

  • NEEDHAM

  • NEW BROCKTON

  • NEW CASTLE

  • NEW HOPE

  • NEW MARKET

  • NEWBERN

  • NEWTON

  • NEWVILLE

  • NORMAL

  • NORTHPORT

  • NOTASULGA

  • OAK HILL

  • OAKMAN

  • ODENVILLE

  • OHATCHEE

  • ONEONTA

  • OPELIKA

  • OPP

  • ORANGE BEACH

  • ORRVILLE

  • OWENS CROSS ROADS

  • OXFORD

  • OZARK

  • PAINT ROCK

  • PALMERDALE

  • PANOLA

  • PANSEY

  • PARRISH

  • PELHAM

  • PELL CITY

  • PENNINGTON

  • PERDIDO

  • PERDUE HILL

  • PEROTE

  • PETERMAN

  • PETERSON

  • PETREY

  • PHENIX CITY

  • PHIL CAMPBELL

  • PIEDMONT

  • PIKE ROAD

  • PINCKARD

  • PINE APPLE

  • PINE HILL

  • PINE LEVEL

  • PINSON

  • PISGAH

  • PITTSVIEW

  • PLANTERSVILLE

  • PLEASANT GROVE

  • POINT CLEAR

  • PRATTVILLE

  • PRINCETON

  • QUINTON

  • RAGLAND

  • RAINBOW CITY

  • RAINSVILLE

  • RALPH

  • RAMER

  • RANBURNE

  • RANDOLPH

  • RANGE

  • RED BAY

  • RED LEVEL

  • REFORM

  • REMLAP

  • REPTON

  • RIVER FALLS

  • RIVERSIDE

  • ROANOKE

  • ROBERTSDALE

  • ROCKFORD

  • ROGERSVILLE

  • RUSSELLVILLE

  • RUTLEDGE

  • RYLAND

  • SAFFORD

  • SAGINAW

  • SAINT ELMO

  • SAINT STEPHENS

  • SALEM

  • SAMANTHA

  • SAMSON

  • SARALAND

  • SARDIS

  • SATSUMA

  • SAWYERVILLE

  • SAYRE

  • SCOTTSBORO

  • SEALE

  • SECTION

  • SELMA

  • SEMINOLE

  • SEMMES

  • SHANNON

  • SHEFFIELD

  • SHELBY

  • SHORTER

  • SHORTERVILLE

  • SILAS

  • SILURIA

  • SILVERHILL

  • SIPSEY

  • SKIPPERVILLE

  • SLOCOMB

  • SMITHS STATION

  • SOMERVILLE

  • SPANISH FORT

  • SPRING GARDEN

  • SPRINGVILLE

  • SPRUCE PINE

  • STANTON

  • STAPLETON

  • STEELE

  • STERRETT

  • STEVENSON

  • STOCKTON

  • SULLIGENT

  • SUMITON

  • SUMMERDALE

  • SUNFLOWER

  • SWEET WATER

  • SYCAMORE

  • SYLACAUGA

  • SYLVANIA

  • TALLADEGA

  • TALLASSEE

  • TANNER

  • THEODORE

  • THOMASTON

  • THOMASVILLE

  • THORSBY

  • TIBBIE

  • TITUS

  • TONEY

  • TOWN CREEK

  • TOWNLEY

  • TOXEY

  • TRAFFORD

  • TRENTON

  • TRINITY

  • TROY

  • TRUSSVILLE

  • TUSCALOOSA

  • TUSCUMBIA

  • TUSKEGEE

  • TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE

  • TYLER

  • UNION GROVE

  • UNION SPRINGS

  • UNIONTOWN

  • URIAH

  • VALHERMOSO SPRINGS

  • VALLEY

  • VALLEY HEAD

  • VANCE

  • VANDIVER

  • VERBENA

  • VERNON

  • VINA

  • VINCENT

  • VINEGAR BEND

  • VINEMONT

  • VREDENBURGH

  • WADLEY

  • WAGARVILLE

  • WALNUT GROVE

  • WARD

  • WARRIOR

  • WATERLOO

  • WATSON

  • WATTSVILLE

  • WAVERLY

  • WEAVER

  • WEBB

  • WEDOWEE

  • WELLINGTON

  • WEOGUFKA

  • WEST BLOCTON

  • WEST GREENE

  • WESTOVER

  • WETUMPKA

  • WHATLEY

  • WILMER

  • WILSONVILLE

  • WILTON

  • WINFIELD

  • WING

  • WOODLAND

  • WOODSTOCK

  • WOODVILLE

  • YORK
  • Does Phone Answering USA provide Automated Reception Services in Alabama?

    Phone Answering USA provides Automated Reception Services in Alabama. This package is simple and cost effective. This package includes a local phone number, unlimited calls, unlimited local & long distance minutes (in the continental US), unlimited call forwarding and up to 7 extensions.

    This package can be purchased on our website or by calling 702.943.0315

    Does Phone Answering USA provide Live 9am to 5pm Live Answering in Alabama?

    Phone Answering USA provides a Pay Per Call Live 9-5 Answering Service in Alabama. These call packages are designed for the company that does not need 24/7 phone answering and wishes to pay per call not per minute. It is a simple way to understand what your monthly cost will be month in and month out.

    Live 9am – 5pm Standard and Premium Package Differentiated:

    Standard Live Answering

    Calls personally answered/ Live Message Receiving/ forwarding call to voice mail, Monday – Friday, 9am – 5pm local time (except holidays). $1 per call over allotted package.

    Premium Live Answering

    Calls personally answered/ screened/ forwarded per your instruction, allowing you to decide whether to accept the call, Monday – Friday, 9am – 5pm local time (except holidays). $1 per call over allotted package.

    Find-Me / Follow-Me: Live efforts to forward your calls, allowing you to not miss that important call.

    Both Standard and Premium packages provide:

    • Off-hour automated reception with up to 7 extensions – Auto-attendant answering of calls in your company’s name with up to 3 dialing options for callers external client number(s). Unlimited Long Distance Continental U.S.
    • Custom greeting for Off-hours – Your company branding when your line is answered.
    • Flat Rate Monthly Call Bundles – You choose the amount of bundled calls monthly for your services and receive one-set price.
    • Local Number – Local Number that is uniquely yours while employing our services.
    • Voice-mail Message to Email – Receive Voice-mails to email and hear it as a .wav file, saving long-distance charges in lieu of calling in to check your messages.
    • Music on Hold – Callers hear music when on hold or while waiting to connect.
    • Text Message Notification to Cell Phone – Receive your messages taken live by receptionist and sent by text to your mobile phone.
    • Call Time Scheduler – Calls can be routed a certain way during business hours (9-5) and a different way after-hours.

    This Package can be purchased on our website or by calling 702.943.0315

    Does Phone Answering USA provide 24/7 Phone Answering services in Alabama?

    Phone Answering USA provides a suite of Phone Answering 24/7 Services in Alabama. All the service packages are custom to fit any companies’ needs.

    Categories:

    • Answering Services
    • Live Receptionist
    • Order Entry
    • Scheduling
    • Call Center
    • Help Desk

    24/7 Service Defined:

    • Absentee Reporting – Agents can answer your employee reporting line and document employee absences at a minimal cost of hiring full or part-time staff.
    • Ad Response – Agents can service and manage the responses to targeted advertising campaigns, website advertising, newspapers, radio, and direct mailings.
    • Answering Service – Experienced agents can answer your line 24/7; collect the information you require; and promptly forward it to you.
    • Directory Service – Provide your callers with the nearest location of your store, service center, or dealer.
    • Disaster Recovery Back-up – Prevent your phones from being unanswered during crisis by utilizing our answering service.
    • E-Mail Read & Response – Agents ca read and respond to your e-mail in a prompt and professional manner using your templates or scripted guidance.
    • Help Desk – Utilizing the information you provide, agents will answer your line and help the caller get the right information for their questions or concerns.
    • Insurance – Professional Agents will answer your line and collect the claims information you require.
    • Marketing Collateral Request Service – Professional agents will answer your line and record the name and address of the caller requesting your catalog, literature, or other information.
    • Medical Answering – Courteous Agents will provide answering for doctors, clinics, and hospitals. HIPAA compliant.
    • Order Entry – Professional agents can take orders for your products and services.
    • Overflow – Outsource your office phones to relieve overburdening your in-house resources.
    • Property Management Services – Agents can handle property inquiries and maintenance dispatching 24/7.
    • Scheduling – Agents will answer your line and schedule appointments and/or provide reminder follow-up calls. Agents can answer your line to schedule your seminar, class, conference, or event.

    These packages can be purchased by contact us through our website or calling 702.943.0315

    State of Alabama

    Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th-most extensive and the 23rd-most populous of the 50 United States. At 1,300 miles (2,100 km), Alabama has one of the longest navigable inland waterways in the nation.
    From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many Southern states, suffered economic hardship, in part because of continued dependence on agriculture. Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature until the 1960s, while urban interests and African Americans were under-represented.
    Following World War II, Alabama experienced growth as the economy of the state transitioned from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. The establishment or expansion of multiple United States Armed Forces installations added to the state economy and helped bridge the gap between an agricultural and industrial economy during the mid-20th century. The state economy in the 21st century is dependent on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology.
    Alabama is unofficially nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is also known as the “Heart of Dixie.” The state tree is the Longleaf Pine, the state flower is the Camellia. The capital of Alabama is Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham. The largest city by total land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists.

    History

    Etymology

    The Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers on the upper reaches of the Alabama River, served as the etymological source of the names of the river and state. In the Alabama language, the word for an Alabama person is Albaamo (or variously Albaama or Albaamo in different dialects; the plural form “Alabama persons” is Albaamaha). The word Alabama is believed to have originated from the Choctaw language and was later adopted by the Alabama tribe as their name. The spelling of the word varies significantly between sources. The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540 with Garcilasso de la Vega using Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively. As early as 1702, the tribe was known to the French as Alibamon with French maps identifying the river as Riviere des Alibamons. Other spellings of the appellation have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, and Allibamou.
    Although the origin of Alabama could be discerned, sources disagree on its meaning. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican originated the idea that the meaning was “Here We Rest.” This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have been unable to find any evidence to support such a translation. Scholars believe the word comes from the Choctaw alba (meaning “plants” or “weeds”) and amo (meaning “to cut”, “to trim”, or “to gather”). The meaning may have been “clearers of the thicket” or “herb gatherers” which may refer to clearing of land for cultivation or to collecting medicinal plants. Alabama is but one of many place names in the state of Native American origin.

    Pre-European settlement

    Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before European colonization. Trade with the Northeast via the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC-AD 700) and continued until European contact.
    The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from AD 1000 to 1600, with one of its major centers being at the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. Analysis of artifacts recovered from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars’ formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC). Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently. The Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples; it is one of the primary means by which their religion is understood.
    Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in the area of present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee, and the Muskogean-speaking Alabama (Alibamu), Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Koasati.

    European settlement

    The French founded the first European settlement in the region at Old Mobile, in 1702. The city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was French from 1702 to 1763, part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783, and split between the United States and Spain from 1783 to 1821. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state outside of the Mobile area. He settled in the Tombigbee settlements, in what is now Washington County, during the early 1770s. What is now the counties of Baldwin and Mobile became part of Spanish West Florida in 1783, part of the independent Republic of West Florida in 1810, and was finally added to the Mississippi Territory in 1812. The area making up today’s northern and central Alabama and Mississippi, then known as the Yazoo lands, had been claimed by the Province of Georgia after 1767. Following the Revolutionary War, it remained a part of Georgia, although heavily disputed.
    With the exception of the immediate area around Mobile and the Yazoo lands, what is now central Alabama was made part of the Mississippi Territory upon its creation in 1798. The Yazoo lands were added to the territory in 1804, following the Yazoo land scandal. Spain had kept a governmental presence in Mobile after 1812. When Andrew Jackson’s forces occupied Mobile in 1814, he demonstrated the United States’ de facto authority over the region, which effectively ended Spanish influence, although not its claim, while gaining an unencumbered passage to the Gulf of Mexico from the hinterlands of the territory. Prior to the admission of Mississippi as a state on December 10, 1817, the more sparsely settled eastern half of the territory was separated and named the Alabama Territory. The Alabama Territory was created by the United States Congress on March 3, 1817. St. Stephens, now abandoned, served as the territorial capital from 1817 to 1819.

    Early statehood

    The United States Congress selected Huntsville as the site for the first Constitutional Convention of Alabama after it was approved to become the 22nd state. From July 5 to August 2, 1819, delegates met to prepare the new state constitution. Huntsville served as the temporary capital of Alabama from 1819 to 1820, when the seat of state government was moved to Cahaba in Dallas County. Cahaba, now a ghost town, was the first permanent state capital from 1820 to 1825. Alabama Fever was already underway when the state was admitted to the Union, with settlers and land speculators pouring into the state to take advantage of fertile land suitable for cotton cultivation. Part of the frontier in the 1820s and 1830s, its constitution provided for universal suffrage for white men. Southeastern planters and traders from the Upper South brought slaves with them as the cotton plantations in Alabama expanded. The economy of the central Black Belt (named for its dark, productive soil) was built around large cotton plantations whose owners’ wealth grew largely from slave labor. The area also drew many poor, disfranchised people who became subsistence farmers. Alabama had a population estimated at under 10,000 people in 1810, but it had increased to more than 300,000 people by 1830. Most Native American tribes were completely removed from the state within a few years of the passage of the Indian Removal Act by Congress in 1830.
    From 1826 to 1846, Tuscaloosa served as the capital of Alabama. On January 30, 1846, the Alabama legislature announced that it had voted to remove the capital city from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery. The first legislative session in the new capital met in December 1847. A new capitol building was erected under the direction of Stephen Decatur Button of Philadelphia. The first structure burned down in 1849, but was rebuilt on the same site in 1851. This second capitol building in Montgomery remains to the present day. It was designed by Barachias Holt of Exeter, Maine. By 1860 the population had increased to a total of 964,201 people, of which 435,080 were enslaved African Americans and 2,690 were free people of color.

    Civil War and Reconstruction

    On January 11, 1861, Alabama declared its secession from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America. While few battles were fought in the state, Alabama contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the American Civil War. Alabama’s slaves were freed by the 13th Amendment in 1865. A company of cavalry soldiers from Huntsville, Alabama joined Gen. Forrest’s troops in Kentucky. The Huntsville company wore fine, new uniforms with yellow cloth on the sleeves, collars and coat tails. This led to them being greeted with “Yellowhammer” and later all Alabama troops in the Confederate Army were nicknamed “Yellowhammers”.
    Alabama was under military rule from the end of the war until official restoration to the Union in 1868. From 1867 to 1874 many African Americans emerged as political leaders in the state. The state was represented in Congress during this period by three African American congressmen: Jeremiah Haralson, Benjamin S. Turner, and James T. Rapier.
    Following the war, the state was still chiefly agricu1ltural, with an economy tied to cotton. During Reconstruction, state legislators ratified a new state constitution in 1868 that created a public school system for the first time and expanded women’s rights. Legislators funded numerous public road and railroad projects, although these were plagued with allegations of fraud and misappropriation. During this time, organized resistance groups acted to suppress freedmen and Republicans. Although the Ku Klux Klan is the most well known, also among these groups were the Pale Faces, Knights of the White Camellia, Red Shirts, and White League.
    Reconstruction in Alabama ended in 1874, when Democrats took control of the legislature and governor’s office. They wrote a new constitution in 1875. Also in 1875, the legislature passed the Blaine Amendment, to prohibit public money from being used to finance religious affiliated schools. In that same year, legislation was approved that called for racially segregated schools. Railroad passenger cars were segregated in 1891. Additional Jim Crow laws were passed after the start of the 20th century.

    1900-1949

    The new 1901 Constitution of Alabama included electoral laws that effectively disfranchised African Americans and most poor whites through voting restrictions, including poll taxes and literacy requirements. While the planter class had persuaded poor whites to support these legislative efforts, the new restrictions resulted in their disfranchisement as well, due mostly to the imposition of a cumulative poll tax. In 1900, Alabama had more than 181,000 African Americans eligible to vote. By 1903, only 2,980 had qualified to register, although at least 74,000 black voters were literate. By 1941, a total of more whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 whites to 520,000 blacks. Nearly all African Americans lost the ability to vote.
    The 1901 constitution reiterated that schools be racially segregated. It also restated that interracial marriage was illegal, although it had already been against the law since 1867. Further racial segregation laws were passed into the 1950s: jails in 1911; hospitals in 1915; toilets, hotels, and restaurants in 1928; and bus stop waiting rooms in 1945.
    The rural-dominated Alabama legislature consistently underfunded schools and services for the disfranchised African Americans in the segregated state, but did not relieve them of paying taxes. Partially as a response to chronic underfunding of education for African Americans in the South, the Rosenwald Fund began funding the building of what came to be known as Rosenwald Schools. In Alabama these schools were designed and the construction partially financed with Rosenwald funds. The fund provided one-third of the construction money, with the community and state splitting the remainder. Beginning in 1913, the first 80 Rosenwald Schools were built in Alabama. A total of 387 schools, 7 teacher’s houses, and several vocational buildings had been completed within the state by 1937. Several of the surviving school buildings in the state are now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
    Continued racial discrimination, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation led tens of thousands of African Americans to seek opportunities in northern cities. They left Alabama in the early 20th century as part of the Great Migration to industrial jobs and better futures in northern industrial cities. The population growth rate in Alabama (see “Historical Populations” table below) dropped by nearly half from 1910 to 1920, reflecting the effect of emigration.
    At the same time, many rural whites and blacks migrated to the city of Birmingham for work in new industrial jobs. It experienced such rapid growth that it was nicknamed “The Magic City”. By the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th largest city in the U.S. and held more than 30% of the population of the state. Heavy industry and mining were the basis of the economy. Industrial development related to the demands of World War II brought a level of prosperity not seen since before the Civil War. Rural workers poured into the largest cities in the state for better jobs and a higher standard of living. One example of this massive influx of workers can be shown by what happened in Mobile. Between 1940 and 1943, more than 89,000 people moved into the city to work for war effort industries. Cotton and other cash crops faded in importance as the state developed a manufacturing and service base.

    1950-2000

    Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate seats based on population. They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. In addition, the state legislature gerrymandered the few Birmingham legislative seats to ensure election by persons living outside Birmingham.
    One result was that Jefferson County, containing Birmingham’s industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than one-third of all tax revenue to the state, but did not receive a proportional amount in services. Urban interests were consistently underrepresented in the legislature. A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination, “A minority of about 25 per cent of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama legislature.”
    African Americans were presumed partial to Republicans for historical reasons, but they were disfranchised. White Alabamans felt bitter towards the Republican Party in the aftermath of the Civil War and Reconstruction. These factors created a longstanding tradition that any candidate who wanted to be viable with white voters had to run as a Democrat regardless of political beliefs.
    Although efforts had already started decades earlier, African Americans began to more actively attempt to end the disfranchisement and segregation in the state during the 1950s and 1960s with the Civil Rights Movement. These efforts directly led to the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 by the United States Congress. During the 1960s, under Governor George Wallace, failed attempts were made at the state level to resist federally-sanctioned desegregation efforts.
    During the Civil Rights Movement, African Americans achieved a protection of voting and other civil rights through the passage of the national Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Legal segregation ended in the states as Jim Crow laws were invalidated or repealed.
    Under the Voting Rights Act of 1965, cases were filed in Federal courts to force Alabama to redistrict by population both the House and Senate of the state legislature. In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the legislature implemented the Alabama constitution’s provision for periodic redistricting based on population. This benefited the urban areas that had developed, as well as all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than 60 years.

    Geography

    Alabama is the thirtieth-largest state in the United States with 52,419 square miles (135,760 km2) of total area: 3.2% of the area is water, making Alabama 23rd in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second-largest inland waterway system in the United States. About three-fifths of the land area is a gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. The North Alabama region is mostly mountainous, with the Tennessee River cutting a large valley creating numerous creeks, streams, rivers, mountains, and lakes.
    The states bordering Alabama are Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida to the south; and Mississippi to the west. Alabama has coastline at the Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge of the state. Alabama ranges in elevation from sea level at Mobile Bay to over 1,800 feet (550 m) in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast. The highest point is Mount Cheaha, at a height of 2,413 ft (735 m). Alabama’s land consists of 22 million acres (89,000 km2) of forest or 67% of total land area. Suburban Baldwin County, along the Gulf Coast, is the largest county in the state in both land area and water area.
    Areas in Alabama administered by the National Park Service include Horseshoe Bend National Military Park near Alexander City; Little River Canyon National Preserve near Fort Payne; Russell Cave National Monument in Bridgeport; Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site in Tuskegee; and Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site near Tuskegee. Additionally, Alabama has four National Forests: Conecuh, Talladega, Tuskegee, and William B. Bankhead. Alabama also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway, the Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail, and the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail. A notable natural wonder in Alabama is “Natural Bridge” rock, the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies, located just south of Haleyville.
    A 5-mile (8 km)-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery. This is the Wetumpka crater, the site of “Alabama’s greatest natural disaster.” A 1,000-foot (300 m)-wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago. The hills just east of downtown Wetumpka showcase the eroded remains of the impact crater that was blasted into the bedrock, with the area labeled the Wetumpka crater or astrobleme (“star-wound”) because of the concentric rings of fractures and zones of shattered rock that can be found beneath the surface. In 2002, Christian Koeberl with the Institute of Geochemistry University of Vienna published evidence and established the site as 157th recognized impact crater on Earth.
    The northernmost point of Alabama lies approximately six miles northwest of Waterloo in Lauderdale County in the far northwest corner of the state. The southernmost point is Sand Island, near Dauphin Island, in Mobile County. The easternmost point lies eight miles southeast of Fort Mitchell in Russell County on the Georgia border. The westernmost point is the southern third of the Mississippi State line, ending near the town of Melvin in Choctaw County.

    Climate

    The state is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa) under the Koppen Climate Classification. The average annual temperature is 64 °F (18 °C). Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler. Generally, Alabama has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the year. Alabama receives an average of 56 inches (1,400 mm) of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state.

    Tornado damage in Phil Campbell following the statewide April 27, 2011 tornado outbreak.
    Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the United States, with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F (32 °C) throughout the summer in some parts of the state. Alabama is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes. Areas of the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken.
    South Alabama reports many thunderstorms. The Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large hail; the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Alabama ranks seventh in the number of deaths from lightning and ninth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita.
    Alabama, along with Kansas, has the most reported EF5 tornadoes of any state, according to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center for the period January 1, 1950, to October 31, 2006. Several long-tracked F5 tornadoes have contributed to Alabama reporting more tornado fatalities than any other state, even surpassing Texas which has a much larger area within Tornado Alley. The state suffered tremendous damage in the Super Outbreak of April 1974, and the April 25-28, 2011 tornado outbreak. The outbreak in April 2011 produced a record amount of tornadoes in the state. The tally reached 62.
    The peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern parts of the state. Alabama is one of the few places in the world that has a secondary tornado season in November and December, along with the spring severe weather season. The northern part of the state-along the Tennessee Valley-is one of the areas in the U.S. most vulnerable to violent tornadoes. The area of Alabama and Mississippi most affected by tornadoes is sometimes referred to as Dixie Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley of the Southern Plains.
    Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of the southeastern United States, with average January low temperatures around 40 °F (4 °C) in Mobile and around 32 °F (0 °C) in Birmingham. Although snow is a rare event in much of Alabama, areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years. Historic snowfall events include New Year’s Eve 1963 snowstorm and the 1993 Storm of the Century. The annual average snowfall for the Birmingham area is 2 inches (51 mm) per year. In the southern Gulf coast, snowfall is less frequent, sometimes going several years without any snowfall.
    Alabama’s highest temperature of 112 °F (44 °C) was recorded on September 5, 1925 in the unincorporated community of Centerville. The record low of -27 °F (-33 °C) occurred on January 30, 1966 in New Market.

    Flora and fauna

    Alabama is home to a diverse array of flora and fauna, due largely to a variety of habitats that range from the Tennessee Valley, Appalachian Plateau, and Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians of the north to the Piedmont, Canebrake and Black Belt of the central region to the Gulf Coastal Plain and beaches along the Gulf of Mexico in the south. The state is usually ranked among the top in nation for its range of overall biodiversity.
    Alabama once boasted huge expanses of pine forest, which still form the largest proportion of forests in the state. It currently ranks fifth in the nation for the diversity of its flora. It is home to nearly 4,000 pteridophyte and spermatophyte plant species.
    Indigenous animal species in the state include 62 mammal species, 93 reptile species, 73 amphibian species, roughly 307 native freshwater fish species, and 420 bird species that spend at least part of their year within the state. Invertebrates include 83 crayfish species and 383 mollusk species. 113 of these mollusk species have never been collected outside of the state.

    Economy

    The state has invested in aerospace, education, health care, banking, and various heavy industries, including automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication. By 2006, crop and animal production in Alabama was valued at $1.5 billion. In contrast to the primarily agricultural economy of the previous century, this was only about 1% of the state’s gross domestic product. The number of private farms has declined at a steady rate since the 1960s, as land has been sold to developers, timber companies, and large farming conglomerates. Occupations outside of agriculture were widespread by 2008. Employment in that year was 121,800 in management occupations; 71,750 in business and financial operations; 36,790 in computer-related and mathematical occupation; 44,200 in architecture and engineering; 12,410 in life, physical, and social sciences; 32,260 in community and social services; 12,770 in legal occupations; 116,250 in education, training, and library services; 27,840 in art, design and media occupations; 121,110 in healthcare; 44,750 in fire fighting, law enforcement, and security; 154,040 in food preparation and serving; 76,650 in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance; 53,230 in personal care and services; 244,510 in sales; 338,760 in office and administration support; 20,510 in farming, fishing, and forestry; 120,155 in construction and mining, gas, and oil extraction; 106,280 in installation, maintenance, and repair; 224,110 in production; and 167,160 in transportation and material moving.
    According to the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis, the 2008 total gross state product was $170 billion, or $29,411 per capita. Alabama’s 2008 GDP increased 0.7% from the previous year. The single largest increase came in the area of information. In 2010, per capita income for the state was $22,984.
    As of June 2012, the state’s unemployment rate is 7.8%.

    Agriculture

    Alabama’s agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, cattle, fish, plant nursery items, peanuts, cotton, grains such as corn and sorghum, vegetables, milk, soybeans, and peaches. Although known as “The Cotton State”, Alabama ranks between eighth and tenth in national cotton production, according to various reports, with Texas, Georgia and Mississippi comprising the top three.

    Industry

    Alabama’s industrial outputs include iron and steel products (including cast-iron and steel pipe); paper, lumber, and wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel. Also, Alabama produces aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, the location of NASA’s George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the U.S. Army Materiel Command, headquartered at Redstone Arsenal.
    A great deal of Alabama’s economic growth since the 1990s has been due to the state’s expanding automotive manufacturing industry. Located in the state are Honda Manufacturing of Alabama, Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International, and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama, as well as their various suppliers. Since 1993, the automobile industry has generated more than 67,800 new jobs in the state. Alabama currently ranks 4th in the nation in automobile output.
    Steel producers Nucor, SSAB, ThyssenKrupp, and U.S. Steel have facilities in Alabama and employ over 10,000 people. In May 2007, German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp selected Alabama for a $3.7 billion steel production plant, with the promise of 2,700 permanent jobs.
    The Hunt Refining Company, a subsidiary of Hunt Consolidated, Inc., is based in Tuscaloosa and operates a refinery there. The company also operates terminals in Mobile, Melvin, and Moundville. JVC America, Inc. operates an optical disc replication and packaging plant in Tuscaloosa.

    Tourism

    An estimated 20 million tourists annually visit the state. Over 100,000 of these are from other countries, including from Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. In 2006, 22.3 million tourists spent $8.3 billion providing an estimated 162,000 jobs in the state.

    Healthcare

    UAB Hospital is the only Level I trauma center in Alabama. UAB is the largest state government employer in Alabama, with a workforce of about 18,000.

    Banking

    Alabama has the headquarters of Regions Financial Corporation, BBVA Compass, Superior Bancorp and the former Colonial Bancgroup. Birmingham-based Compass Banchshares was acquired by Spanish-based BBVA in September 2007, although the headquarters of BBVA Compass remains in Birmingham. In November 2006, Regions Financial completed its merger with AmSouth Bancorporation, which was also headquartered in Birmingham. SouthTrust Corporation, another large bank headquartered in Birmingham, was acquired by Wachovia in 2004 for $14.3 billion. The city still has major operations for Wachovia and its now post-operating bank Wells Fargo, which includes a regional headquarters, an operations center campus and a $400 million dollar data center. Nearly a dozen smaller banks are also headquartered in the Birmingham, such as Superior Bancorp, ServisFirst and New South Federal Savings Bank. Birmingham also serves as the headquarters for several large investment management companies, including Harbert Management Corporation.

    Electronics

    Telecommunications provider AT&T, formerly BellSouth, also has a major presence in Alabama with several large offices in Birmingham. The company has over 6,000 employees and more than 1,200 contract employees.
    Many commercial technology companies are headquartered in Huntsville, such as the network access company ADTRAN, computer graphics company Intergraph, design and manufacturer of IT infrastructure Avocent, and telecommunications provider Deltacom. Cinram manufactures and distributes 20th Century Fox DVDs and Blu-ray Discs out of their Huntsville plant.