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Phone Answering Service in Mississippi

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    • 1 to 3 days

      JACKSON

      24/7 Voicemail Reception

      9 – 5 Live Answering

      24/7 Custom Solutions

      Starts at $20/month

  • JACKSON

  • ABBEVILLE

  • ABERDEEN

  • ACKERMAN

  • ALGOMA

  • ALLIGATOR

  • AMORY

  • ANGUILLA

  • ARCOLA

  • ARKABUTLA

  • ARTESIA

  • ASHLAND

  • AVON

  • BAILEY

  • BALDWYN

  • BANNER

  • BASSFIELD

  • BATESVILLE

  • BAY SAINT LOUIS

  • BAY SPRINGS

  • BEAUMONT

  • BECKER

  • BELDEN

  • BELEN

  • BELLEFONTAINE

  • BELMONT

  • BELZONI

  • BENOIT

  • BENTON

  • BENTONIA

  • BEULAH

  • BIG CREEK

  • BILOXI

  • BLUE MOUNTAIN

  • BLUE SPRINGS

  • BOGUE CHITTO

  • BOLTON

  • BOONEVILLE

  • BOYLE

  • BRANDON

  • BRAXTON

  • BROOKHAVEN

  • BROOKLYN

  • BROOKSVILLE

  • BRUCE

  • BUCKATUNNA

  • BUDE

  • BURNSVILLE

  • BYHALIA

  • BYRAM

  • CALEDONIA

  • CALHOUN CITY

  • CAMDEN

  • CANTON

  • CARRIERE

  • CARROLLTON

  • CARSON

  • CARTHAGE

  • CARY

  • CASCILLA

  • CEDARBLUFF

  • CENTREVILLE

  • CHARLESTON

  • CHATAWA

  • CHATHAM

  • CHUNKY

  • CLARA

  • CLARKSDALE

  • CLEVELAND

  • CLINTON

  • COAHOMA

  • COFFEEVILLE

  • COILA

  • COLDWATER

  • COLLINS

  • COLLINSVILLE

  • COLUMBIA

  • COLUMBUS

  • COMO

  • CONEHATTA

  • CORINTH

  • COURTLAND

  • CRAWFORD

  • CRENSHAW

  • CROSBY

  • CROWDER

  • CRUGER

  • CRYSTAL SPRINGS

  • D LO

  • DALEVILLE

  • DARLING

  • DE KALB

  • DECATUR

  • DELTA CITY

  • DENNIS

  • DERMA

  • DIAMONDHEAD

  • DIBERVILLE

  • DODDSVILLE

  • DREW

  • DUBLIN

  • DUCK HILL

  • DUMAS

  • DUNCAN

  • DUNDEE

  • DURANT

  • EASTABUCHIE

  • ECRU

  • EDWARDS

  • ELLIOTT

  • ELLISVILLE

  • ENID

  • ENTERPRISE

  • ESCATAWPA

  • ETHEL

  • ETTA

  • EUPORA

  • FALCON

  • FALKNER

  • FARRELL

  • FAYETTE

  • FERNWOOD

  • FLORA

  • FLORENCE

  • FLOWOOD

  • FOREST

  • FOXWORTH

  • FRENCH CAMP

  • FRIARS POINT

  • FULTON

  • GALLMAN

  • GATTMAN

  • GAUTIER

  • GEORGETOWN

  • GLEN

  • GLEN ALLAN

  • GLENDORA

  • GLOSTER

  • GOLDEN

  • GOODMAN

  • GORE SPRINGS

  • GRACE

  • GREENVILLE

  • GREENWOOD

  • GREENWOOD SPRINGS

  • GRENADA

  • GULFPORT

  • GUNNISON

  • GUNTOWN

  • HAMILTON

  • HARPERVILLE

  • HARRISTON

  • HARRISVILLE

  • HATTIESBURG

  • HAZLEHURST

  • HEIDELBERG

  • HERMANVILLE

  • HERNANDO

  • HICKORY

  • HICKORY FLAT

  • HILLSBORO

  • HOLCOMB

  • HOLLANDALE

  • HOLLY BLUFF

  • HOLLY RIDGE

  • HOLLY SPRINGS

  • HORN LAKE

  • HOULKA

  • HOUSTON

  • HURLEY

  • INDEPENDENCE

  • INDIANOLA

  • INVERNESS

  • ISOLA

  • ITTA BENA

  • IUKA

  • JAYESS

  • JONESTOWN

  • KILMICHAEL

  • KILN

  • KOKOMO

  • KOSCIUSKO

  • LAKE

  • LAKE CORMORANT

  • LAKESHORE

  • LAMAR

  • LAMBERT

  • LAUDERDALE

  • LAUREL

  • LAWRENCE

  • LEAKESVILLE

  • LELAND

  • LENA

  • LEXINGTON

  • LIBERTY

  • LITTLE ROCK

  • LONG BEACH

  • LORMAN

  • LOUIN

  • LOUISE

  • LOUISVILLE

  • LUCEDALE

  • LUDLOW

  • LULA

  • LUMBERTON

  • LYON

  • MABEN

  • MACON

  • MADDEN

  • MADISON

  • MAGEE

  • MAGNOLIA

  • MANTACHIE

  • MANTEE

  • MARIETTA

  • MARION

  • MARKS

  • MATHISTON

  • MAYERSVILLE

  • MAYHEW

  • MC ADAMS

  • MC CALL CREEK

  • MC CARLEY

  • MC COOL

  • MC HENRY

  • MC LAIN

  • MC NEILL

  • MCCOMB

  • MEADVILLE

  • MENDENHALL

  • MERIDIAN

  • MERIGOLD

  • METCALFE

  • MICHIGAN CITY

  • MIDNIGHT

  • MINTER CITY

  • MISSISSIPPI STATE

  • MIZE

  • MONEY

  • MONTICELLO

  • MONTPELIER

  • MOOREVILLE

  • MOORHEAD

  • MORGAN CITY

  • MORTON

  • MOSELLE

  • MOSS

  • MOSS POINT

  • MOUND BAYOU

  • MOUNT OLIVE

  • MOUNT PLEASANT

  • MYRTLE

  • NATCHEZ

  • NEELY

  • NESBIT

  • NETTLETON

  • NEW ALBANY

  • NEW AUGUSTA

  • NEW SITE

  • NEWHEBRON

  • NEWTON

  • NICHOLSON

  • NORTH CARROLLTON

  • NOXAPATER

  • OAK VALE

  • OAKLAND

  • OCEAN SPRINGS

  • OKOLONA

  • OLIVE BRANCH

  • OSYKA

  • OVETT

  • OXFORD

  • PACE

  • PACHUTA

  • PANTHER BURN

  • PARCHMAN

  • PARIS

  • PASCAGOULA

  • PASS CHRISTIAN

  • PATTISON

  • PAULDING

  • PEARL

  • PEARLINGTON

  • PELAHATCHIE

  • PERKINSTON

  • PETAL

  • PHEBA

  • PHILADELPHIA

  • PHILIPP

  • PICAYUNE

  • PICKENS

  • PINEY WOODS

  • PINOLA

  • PITTSBORO

  • PLANTERSVILLE

  • POCAHONTAS

  • PONTOTOC

  • POPE

  • POPLARVILLE

  • PORT GIBSON

  • PORTERVILLE

  • POTTS CAMP

  • PRAIRIE

  • PRENTISS

  • PRESTON

  • PUCKETT

  • PULASKI

  • PURVIS

  • QUITMAN

  • RALEIGH

  • RANDOLPH

  • RAYMOND

  • RED BANKS

  • REDWOOD

  • RENA LARA

  • RICHLAND

  • RICHTON

  • RIDGELAND

  • RIENZI

  • RIPLEY

  • ROBINSONVILLE

  • ROLLING FORK

  • ROME

  • ROSE HILL

  • ROSEDALE

  • ROXIE

  • RULEVILLE

  • RUTH

  • SALLIS

  • SALTILLO

  • SANDERSVILLE

  • SANDHILL

  • SANDY HOOK

  • SARAH

  • SARDIS

  • SATARTIA

  • SAUCIER

  • SCHLATER

  • SCOBEY

  • SCOOBA

  • SCOTT

  • SEBASTOPOL

  • SEMINARY

  • SENATOBIA

  • SHANNON

  • SHARON

  • SHAW

  • SHELBY

  • SHERARD

  • SHERMAN

  • SHUBUTA

  • SHUQUALAK

  • SIBLEY

  • SIDON

  • SILVER CITY

  • SILVER CREEK

  • SLATE SPRING

  • SLEDGE

  • SMITHDALE

  • SMITHVILLE

  • SONTAG

  • SOSO

  • SOUTHAVEN

  • STAR

  • STARKVILLE

  • STATE LINE

  • STEENS

  • STENNIS SPACE CENTER

  • STEWART

  • STONEVILLE

  • STONEWALL

  • STRINGER

  • STURGIS

  • SUMMIT

  • SUMNER

  • SUMRALL

  • SUNFLOWER

  • SWAN LAKE

  • SWIFTOWN

  • TAYLOR

  • TAYLORSVILLE

  • TCHULA

  • TERRY

  • THAXTON

  • THOMASTOWN

  • TIE PLANT

  • TILLATOBA

  • TINSLEY

  • TIPLERSVILLE

  • TIPPO

  • TISHOMINGO

  • TOCCOPOLA

  • TOOMSUBA

  • TOUGALOO

  • TREBLOC

  • TREMONT

  • TULA

  • TUNICA

  • TUPELO

  • TUTWILER

  • TYLERTOWN

  • UNION

  • UNION CHURCH

  • UNIVERSITY

  • UTICA

  • VAIDEN

  • VALLEY PARK

  • VAN VLEET

  • VANCE

  • VANCLEAVE

  • VARDAMAN

  • VAUGHAN

  • VERONA

  • VICKSBURG

  • VICTORIA

  • VOSSBURG

  • WALLS

  • WALNUT

  • WALNUT GROVE

  • WALTHALL

  • WASHINGTON

  • WATER VALLEY

  • WATERFORD

  • WAVELAND

  • WAYNESBORO

  • WAYSIDE

  • WEBB

  • WEIR

  • WESSON

  • WEST

  • WEST POINT

  • WHEELER

  • WHITFIELD

  • WIGGINS

  • WINONA

  • WINSTONVILLE

  • WINTERVILLE

  • WOODLAND

  • WOODVILLE

  • YAZOO CITY
  • Does Phone Answering USA provide Automated Reception Services in Mississippi?

    Phone Answering USA provides Automated Reception Services in Mississippi. This package is simple and cost effective. This package includes a local phone number, unlimited calls, unlimited local & long distance minutes (in the continental US), unlimited call forwarding and up to 7 extensions.

    This package can be purchased on our website or by calling 702.943.0315

    Does Phone Answering USA provide Live 9am to 5pm Live Answering in Mississippi?

    Phone Answering USA provides a Pay Per Call Live 9-5 Answering Service in Mississippi. These call packages are designed for the company that does not need 24/7 phone answering and wishes to pay per call not per minute. It is a simple way to understand what your monthly cost will be month in and month out.

    Live 9am – 5pm Standard and Premium Package Differentiated:

    Standard Live Answering

    Calls personally answered/ Live Message Receiving/ forwarding call to voice mail, Monday – Friday, 9am – 5pm local time (except holidays). $1 per call over allotted package.

    Premium Live Answering

    Calls personally answered/ screened/ forwarded per your instruction, allowing you to decide whether to accept the call, Monday – Friday, 9am – 5pm local time (except holidays). $1 per call over allotted package.

    Find-Me / Follow-Me: Live efforts to forward your calls, allowing you to not miss that important call.

    Both Standard and Premium packages provide:

    • Off-hour automated reception with up to 7 extensions – Auto-attendant answering of calls in your company’s name with up to 3 dialing options for callers external client number(s). Unlimited Long Distance Continental U.S.
    • Custom greeting for Off-hours – Your company branding when your line is answered.
    • Flat Rate Monthly Call Bundles – You choose the amount of bundled calls monthly for your services and receive one-set price.
    • Local Number – Local Number that is uniquely yours while employing our services.
    • Voice-mail Message to Email – Receive Voice-mails to email and hear it as a .wav file, saving long-distance charges in lieu of calling in to check your messages.
    • Music on Hold – Callers hear music when on hold or while waiting to connect.
    • Text Message Notification to Cell Phone – Receive your messages taken live by receptionist and sent by text to your mobile phone.
    • Call Time Scheduler – Calls can be routed a certain way during business hours (9-5) and a different way after-hours.

    This Package can be purchased on our website or by calling 702.943.0315

    Does Phone Answering USA provide 24/7 Phone Answering services in Mississippi?

    Phone Answering USA provides a suite of Phone Answering 24/7 Services in Mississippi. All the service packages are custom to fit any companies’ needs.

    Categories:

    • Answering Services
    • Live Receptionist
    • Order Entry
    • Scheduling
    • Call Center
    • Help Desk

    24/7 Service Defined:

    • Absentee Reporting – Agents can answer your employee reporting line and document employee absences at a minimal cost of hiring full or part-time staff.
    • Ad Response – Agents can service and manage the responses to targeted advertising campaigns, website advertising, newspapers, radio, and direct mailings.
    • Answering Service – Experienced agents can answer your line 24/7; collect the information you require; and promptly forward it to you.
    • Directory Service – Provide your callers with the nearest location of your store, service center, or dealer.
    • Disaster Recovery Back-up – Prevent your phones from being unanswered during crisis by utilizing our answering service.
    • E-Mail Read & Response – Agents ca read and respond to your e-mail in a prompt and professional manner using your templates or scripted guidance.
    • Help Desk – Utilizing the information you provide, agents will answer your line and help the caller get the right information for their questions or concerns.
    • Insurance – Professional Agents will answer your line and collect the claims information you require.
    • Marketing Collateral Request Service – Professional agents will answer your line and record the name and address of the caller requesting your catalog, literature, or other information.
    • Medical Answering – Courteous Agents will provide answering for doctors, clinics, and hospitals. HIPAA compliant.
    • Order Entry – Professional agents can take orders for your products and services.
    • Overflow – Outsource your office phones to relieve overburdening your in-house resources.
    • Property Management Services – Agents can handle property inquiries and maintenance dispatching 24/7.
    • Scheduling – Agents will answer your line and schedule appointments and/or provide reminder follow-up calls. Agents can answer your line to schedule your seminar, class, conference, or event.

    These packages can be purchased by contact us through our website or calling 702.943.0315

    State of Mississippi

    Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi (“Great River”). Mississippi is the 32nd most extensive and the 31st most populous of the 50 United States. The state is heavily forested outside of the Mississippi Delta area, which was cleared for cotton cultivation in the 19th century. Today, its catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. The state symbol is the Magnolia grandiflora tree.

    Geography

    Mississippi is bordered on the north by Tennessee, on the east by Alabama, on the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico and on the west, across the Mississippi River, by Louisiana and Arkansas.
    In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, and the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake and Grenada Lake. The largest lake in Mississippi is Grenada Lake.
    The state of Mississippi is entirely composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 806 feet (246 m) above sea level. The lowest point is sea level at the Gulf coast. The mean elevation in the state is 300 feet (91 m) above sea level.
    Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain. The Coastal Plain is generally composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state. The northeast is a region of fertile black earth that extends into the Alabama Black Belt.
    The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis, Biloxi and Pascagoula. It is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, which is partially sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island, East and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island and Cat Island.
    The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain is narrow in the south and widens north of Vicksburg. The region has rich soil, partly made up of silt which had been regularly deposited by the floodwaters of the Mississippi River.

    Climate

    Mississippi has a humid subtropical climate with long summers and short, mild winters. Temperatures average about 95°F (about 35°C) in July and about 48 °F (about 9 °C) in January. The temperature varies little statewide in the summer; however, in winter, the region near Mississippi Sound is significantly warmer than the inland portion of the state. The recorded temperature in Mississippi has ranged from -19 °F (-28.3 °C), in 1966, at Corinth in the northeast, to 115 °F (46.1 °C), in 1930, at Holly Springs in the north. Heavy snowfall is possible across the state, such as during the New Year’s Eve 1963 snowstorm. Yearly precipitation generally increases from north to south, with the regions closer to the Gulf being the most humid. Thus, Clarksdale, in the northwest, gets about 50 inches (about 1,270 mm) of precipitation annually and Biloxi, in the south, about 61 inches (about 1,550 mm). Small amounts of snow fall in northern and central Mississippi, although snow is occasional in the southern part of the state.
    The late summer and fall is the seasonal period of risk for hurricanes moving inland from the Gulf of Mexico, especially in the southern part of the state. Hurricane Camille in 1969 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which killed 238 people in the state, are the most devastating hurricanes to hit the state, both causing nearly total storm surge damage around Gulfport, Biloxi and Pascagoula. As in the rest of the Deep South, thunderstorms are common in Mississippi, especially in the southern part of the state. On average, Mississippi has around 27 tornadoes annually; the northern part of the state has more tornadoes earlier in the year and the southern part a higher frequency later in the year. Two of the five deadliest tornadoes in US history have occurred in the state. These storms struck Natchez, in southwest Mississippi (see The Great Natchez Tornado) and Tupelo, in the northeast corner of the state. About seven F5 tornadoes have been recorded in the state.

    History

    Near 10,000 B.C. Native Americans or Paleo-Indians arrived in what today is referred to as the South. Paleoindians in the South were hunter-gatherers who pursued the megafauna that became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. After thousands of years, succeeding cultures of the Woodland and Mississippian culture eras developed rich and complex agricultural societies, in which surplus supported the development of specialized trades. Both were mound builder cultures. Those of the Mississippian culture were the largest and most complex, and the peoples had a trading network spanning the continent from North to South. Their large earthworks, which expressed political and religious concepts, still stand throughout the Mississippi and Ohio valleys.
    Descendant Native American tribes of the Mississippian culture in the Southeast include the Chickasaw and Choctaw. Other tribes who inhabited the territory of Mississippi (and whose names were honored in local towns) include the Natchez, the Yazoo and the Biloxi.
    The first major European expedition into the territory that became Mississippi was that of the Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, who passed through the northeast part of the state in 1540, in his second expedition to the New World. In April 1699, French colonists established the first European settlement at Fort Maurepas (also known as Old Biloxi), built at Ocean Springs and settled by Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville. In 1716, the French founded Natchez on the Mississippi River (as Fort Rosalie); it became the dominant town and trading post of the area. The French called the greater territory “New Louisiana”; the Spanish continued to claim the Gulf coast area of present-day southern Alabama and Florida.
    Through the next decades, the area was ruled by Spanish, French and British colonial governments. The colonists imported African slaves as laborers. Under French and Spanish rule, there developed a class of free people of color (gens de couleur libres), mostly multiracial descendants of European men and enslaved women, and their children. In the early days the French and Spanish colonists were chiefly men. Even as more European women joined the settlements, the men had interracial unions among women of African descent (and increasingly, also European descent), both before and after marriages to European women. Often the European men would help their multiracial children get educated or have apprenticeships for trades, and sometimes settled property on them; they sometimes freed the mothers and their children if enslaved. With this social capital, the free people of color became artisans, sometimes educated merchants and property owners, forming a third class between the Europeans and most enslaved Africans in the French and Spanish settlements, although not so large a community as in New Orleans. After Great Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War), the French surrendered the Mississippi area to them under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763).
    After the American Revolution, this area became part of the new United States of America. The Mississippi Territory was organized on April 7, 1798, from territory ceded by Georgia and South Carolina. It was later twice expanded to include disputed territory claimed by both the United States and Spain. From 1800 to about 1830, the United States purchased some lands (Treaty of Doak’s Stand) from Native American tribes for new settlements of European Americans, who were mostly migrants from other Southern states. Many slaveholders brought slaves with them or purchased them through the internal slave market, especially New Orleans. They transported nearly one million slaves to the Deep South, including Mississippi, in a forced internal migration that broke up many slave families of the Upper South, where planters were selling excess slaves. The Southerners imposed their slave laws and restricted the rights of free blacks, according to their view of white supremacy.
    Southern slave codes did make wilful killing of a slave illegal in most cases. For example, the 1860 Mississippi case of Oliver v. State charged the defendant with murdering his own slave.
    On December 10, 1817, Mississippi was the 20th state admitted to the Union. David Holmes was elected as the first governor of the state. Plantations were developed primarily along the rivers, where waterfront gave them access to the major transportation routes. This is also where early towns developed, linked by the steamboats that carried commercial products and crops to markets. The backcountry remained largely undeveloped frontier.
    When cotton was king during the 1850s, Mississippi plantation owners-especially those of the Delta and Black Belt regions-became wealthy due to the high fertility of the soil, the high price of cotton on the international market, and their assets in slaves. They used the profits to buy more cotton land and more slaves. The planters’ dependence on hundreds of thousands of slaves for labor and the severe wealth imbalances among whites, played strong roles both in state politics and in planters’ support for secession.
    By 1860, the enslaved population numbered 436,631 or 55% of the state’s total of 791,305. There were fewer than 1000 free people of color. The relatively low population of the state before the Civil War reflected the fact that land and villages were developed only along the riverfronts, which formed the main transportation corridors. Ninety percent of the Delta bottomlands were frontier and undeveloped. The state needed many more settlers for development.
    On January 9, 1861, Mississippi became the second state to declare its secession from the Union, and it was one of the founding members of the Confederate States of America. During the war, Union and Confederate forces struggled over dominance on the Mississippi River, critical to supply routes and commerce. More than 80,000 Mississippians fought in the Civil War, and casualties were extremely heavy. Union General Ulysses S. Grant’s long siege of Vicksburg finally gained the Union control in 1864.
    During Reconstruction, the first Mississippi constitutional convention in 1868, with delegates both black and white, framed a constitution whose major elements would last for 22 years. The convention was the first political organization to include African-American representatives, 17 among the 100 members. Some were freedmen, but others were free blacks who had migrated from the North. Although 32 counties had black majorities, they elected whites as well as blacks to represent them. The convention adopted universal suffrage; did away with property qualifications for suffrage or for office, a change that also benefited poor whites; provided for the state’s first public school system; forbade race distinctions in the possession and inheritance of property; and prohibited limiting civil rights in travel. Under the terms of Reconstruction, Mississippi was restored to the Union on February 23, 1870.
    While Mississippi typified the Deep South in passing Jim Crow laws in the late 19th century and a constitution in 1890 that essentially disfranchised blacks, its history was more complex. Because the Mississippi Delta contained so much fertile bottomland that had not been developed before the Civil War, 90 percent of the land was still frontier. After the Civil War, tens of thousands of migrants were attracted to the area. They could earn money by clearing the land and selling timber, and eventually advance to ownership. The new farmers included freedmen, who achieved unusually high rates of land ownership in the Mississippi bottomlands. In the 1870s and 1880s, many black farmers succeeded in gaining land ownership.
    Around the start of the 20th century, two-thirds of the farmers in Mississippi who owned land in the Delta were African American. Many were able to keep going through difficult years of falling cotton prices only by extending their debts. Cotton prices fell throughout the decades following the Civil War. As another agricultural depression lowered cotton prices into the 1890s, however, numerous African-American farmers finally had to sell their land to pay off debts, thus losing the land which they had developed by personal labor.
    White legislators created a new constitution in 1890, with electoral and voter registration provisions that effectively disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites. Estimates are that 100,000 black and 50,000 white men were removed from voter registration rolls over the next few years. The loss of political influence contributed to the difficulties of African Americans in their attempts to obtain extended credit in the late nineteenth century. Together with Jim Crow laws, the increased frequency of lynchings beginning in the 1890s as whites worked to impose supremacy, failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation, and successive severe flooding in 1912 and 1913, created crisis conditions for many African Americans. With control of the ballot box and more access to credit, white planters expanded their ownership of Delta bottomlands and could take advantage of new railroads.
    In 1900, blacks numbered in the state and comprised 50+ percent of the population. By 1910, a majority of black farmers in the Delta had lost their land and were sharecroppers. By 1920, the third generation after freedom, most African Americans in Mississippi were landless laborers again facing poverty. Starting about 1913, tens of thousands of black Americans left Mississippi for the North in the Great Migration to industrial cities such as St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia and New York. They sought jobs, better education for their children, the right to vote, relative freedom from discrimination, and better living. In the migration of 1910-1940, they left a society that had been steadily closing off opportunity. Most migrants from Mississippi took trains directly north to Chicago and often settled near former neighbors.
    In the early twentieth century, some industries were established in Mississippi, but jobs were generally restricted to whites, including child workers. The lack of jobs also drove some southern whites north to cities such as Chicago seeking employment. The state depended on agriculture, but mechanization put many farm laborers out of work.
    The Second Great Migration from the South started in the 1940s, lasting until 1970. Almost half a million people left Mississippi in the second migration, three-quarters of them black. Nationwide during the first half of the 20th century, African Americans became rapidly urbanized and many worked in industrial jobs. The Second Great Migration included destinations in the West, especially California, where the buildup of the defense industry offered higher paying jobs to African Americans.
    African Americans and whites in Mississippi generated rich, quintessentially American music traditions: gospel music, country music, jazz, blues and rock and roll. All were invented, promulgated or heavily developed by Mississippi musicians, many of them African American, and most came from the Mississippi Delta. Many musicians carried their music north to Chicago, where they made it the heart of that city’s jazz and blues.
    So many African Americans left in the Great Migration that they became a minority after the 1930s. In 1960 they made up 42% of the state’s population. The white administered, discriminatory voter registration processes had persisted, preventing most of them from voting, due to provisions of the 1890 state constitution. During the Civil Rights Movement, Mississippi was a center of activity, based in black churches, to educate and register black voters. Students and community organizers from across the country came to help register black voters and establish Freedom Schools. Resistance and the harsh attitudes of most white politicians (including the creation of the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission), the participation of many Mississippians in the White Citizens’ Councils, and the violent tactics of the Ku Klux Klan and its sympathizers, gained Mississippi a reputation in the 1960s as a reactionary state. African Americans in the state began to exercise their franchise in the mid-1960s, after passage of federal civil rights legislation in 1964 and 1965 ending segregation and enforcing constitutional voting rights.
    In 1966, the state was the last to repeal officially statewide prohibition of alcohol. Prior to that, Mississippi had taxed the illegal alcohol brought in by bootleggers. Governor Paul Johnson urged repeal and the sheriff “raided the annual Junior League Mardi Gras ball at the Jackson Country Club, breaking open the liquor cabinet and carting off the Champagne before a startled crowd of nobility and high-ranking state officials.”
    The state repealed its ban on interracial marriage (miscegenation) in 1987 (which the United States Supreme Court had ruled unconstitutional in 1967). It repealed the segregationist-era poll tax in 1989. In 1995, it symbolically ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, which had abolished slavery in 1865. Though ratified in 1995, the state never officially notified the US Archivist, which kept the ratification unofficial until 2013, when Ken Sullivan contacted the office of Secretary of State Delbert Hosemann, who agreed to file the paperwork and make it official. In 2009, the legislature passed a bill to repeal other discriminatory civil rights laws, which had been enacted in 1964 but ruled unconstitutional in 1967 by federal courts. Republican Governor Haley Barbour signed the bill into law.
    On August 17, 1969, Category 5 Hurricane Camille hit the Mississippi coast, killing 248 people and causing US$1.5 billion in damage (1969 dollars). On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina, though a Category 3 storm upon final landfall, caused even greater destruction across the entire 90 miles (145 km) of Mississippi Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama.

    Economy

    The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Mississippi’s total state product in 2010 was $98 billion. Per capita personal income in 2006 was $26,908, the lowest per capita personal income of any state, but the state also has the nation’s lowest living costs. Although the state has one of the lowest per capita income rates in the United States, Mississippians consistently rank as one of the highest per capita in charitable contributions.
    Before the Civil War, Mississippi was the fifth-wealthiest state in the nation, its wealth generated by cotton plantations along the rivers. Slaves were then counted as property and the rise in the cotton markets since the 1840s had increased their value. A majority – 55 percent – of the population of Mississippi was enslaved in 1860. Ninety percent of the Delta bottomlands were undeveloped and the state had low population overall.
    Largely due to the domination of the plantation economy, focused on the production of agricultural cotton, the state was slow to use its wealth to invest in infrastructure such as public schools, roads and railroads. Industrialization did not come in many areas until the late 20th century. The planter aristocracy, the elite of antebellum Mississippi, kept the tax structure low for themselves and made private improvements. Before the war the most successful planters, such as Confederate President Jefferson Davis, owned riverside properties along the Mississippi River. Most of the state was undeveloped frontier away from the riverfronts.
    During the Civil War, 30,000 mostly white Mississippi men died from wounds and disease, and many more were left crippled and wounded. Changes to the labor structure and an agricultural depression throughout the South caused severe losses in wealth. In 1860 assessed valuation of property in Mississippi had been more than $500 million, of which $218 million (43 percent) was estimated as the value of slaves. By 1870, total assets had decreased in value to roughly $177 million.
    Poor whites and landless former slaves suffered the most from the postwar economic depression. The constitutional convention of early 1868 appointed a committee to recommend what was needed for relief of the state and its citizens. The committee found severe destitution among the laboring classes. It took years for the state to rebuild levees damaged in battles. The upset of the commodity system impoverished the state after the war. By 1868 an increased cotton crop began to show possibilities for free labor in the state, but the crop of 565,000 bales produced in 1870 was still less than half of prewar figures.
    Blacks sold timber and developed bottomland to achieve ownership. In 1900, two-thirds of farm owners in Mississippi were blacks, a major achievement for them and their families. Due to the poor economy, low cotton prices and difficulty of getting credit, many of these farmers could not make it through the extended financial difficulties. Two decades later, the majority of African Americans were sharecroppers. The low prices of cotton into the 1890s meant that more than a generation of African Americans lost the result of their labor when they had to sell their farms to pay off accumulated debts.
    Mississippi’s rank as one of the poorest states is related to its dependence on cotton agriculture before and after the Civil War, late development of its frontier bottomlands in the Mississippi Delta, repeated natural disasters of flooding in the late 19th and early 20th century requiring massive capital investment in levees, heavy capital investment to ditch and drain the bottomlands, and slow development of railroads to link bottomland towns and river cities. In addition, when conservative white Democrats regained control, they passed the 1890 constitution that discouraged industry, a legacy that would slow the state’s progress for years.
    After the Civil War, the state refused for years to build human capital by fully educating all its citizens. In addition, the reliance on agriculture grew increasingly costly as the state suffered loss of crops due to the devastation of the boll weevil in the early 20th century, devastating floods in 1912-1913 and 1927, collapse of cotton prices after 1920, and drought in 1930.
    It was not until 1884, after the flood of 1882, that the state created the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta District Levee Board and started successfully achieving longer term plans for levees in the upper Delta. Despite the state’s building and reinforcing levees for years, the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 broke through and caused massive flooding of 27,000 square miles (70,000 km2) throughout the Delta, homelessness for hundreds of thousands, and millions of dollars in property damages. With the Depression coming so soon after the flood, the state suffered badly during those years. In the Great Migration, tens of thousands of African Americans migrated North and West for jobs and chances to live as full citizens.
    The legislature’s 1990 decision to legalize casino gambling along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast has led to economic gains for the state. Gambling towns in Mississippi include the Gulf Coast resort towns of Bay St. Louis, Gulfport and Biloxi, and the Mississippi River towns of Tunica (the third largest gaming area in the United States), Greenville, Vicksburg and Natchez. Before Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast, Mississippi was the second largest gambling state in the Union, after Nevada and ahead of New Jersey. An estimated $500,000 per day in tax revenue was lost following Hurricane Katrina’s severe damage to several coastal casinos in August 2005. In 2007, Mississippi had the third largest gambling revenue of any state, behind New Jersey and Nevada. Federally recognized Native American tribes have established gaming casinos on their reservations, which are yielding revenue to support education and economic development.
    On October 17, 2005, Governor Haley Barbour signed a bill into law that allows casinos in Hancock and Harrison counties to rebuild on land (but within 800 feet (240 m) of the water). The only exception is in Harrison County, where the new law states that casinos can be built to the southern boundary of U.S. Route 90.
    Mississippi collects personal income tax in three tax brackets, ranging from 3% to 5%. The retail sales tax rate in Mississippi is 7%. A local sales tax of 2.5% is levied in Tupelo. For purposes of assessment for ad valorem taxes, taxable property is divided into five classes.
    On August 30, 2007, a report by the United States Census Bureau indicated that Mississippi was the poorest state in the country. Many cotton farmers in the Delta have large, mechanized plantations, some of which receive extensive federal subsidies, yet many other residents still live as poor, rural, landless laborers. Of $1.2 billion from 2002-2005 in federal subsidies to farmers in the Bolivar County area of the Delta, 5% went to small farmers. There has been little money apportioned for rural development. Small towns are struggling. More than 100,000 people have left the region in search of work elsewhere. The state had a median household income of $34,473.
    As of January 2010, the state’s unemployment rate was 10.9%.